Copyright educationInternational collective copyright licencing Select a subject... All subjects Purpose of copyright Copyright protection and duration Copyright types and exceptions Copyright permissions International collective copyright licencing Copyright regulations in Europe International copyright treaties Collective licensing at an international level In many countries, copyright collective management organisations (also known as collecting societies or “collective management organisations” or “CMOs”) licence large-scale use of works on behalf of large numbers of rightsholders collect royalties for those uses distribute these royalties back to rightsholders There are collective management organisations that specialize in different categories of works and creators. In the field of text and image-based works these organisations are called Reproduction Rights Organisations (RROs). They typically deal with the licensing of secondary uses of books, journals, newspapers and magazines – in both their paper formats AND their online or digital formats – and in some cases also with visual content such as motion pictures, photographs and illustrations. Copyright Clearance Center (CCC), the parent organisation of RightsDirect, is an RRO itself. There are RROs in almost 80 countries, ranging from sophisticated organisations with long histories to start-up organisations in developing countries. Most RROs belong to the International Federation of Reproduction Rights Organisations (IFRRO). RROs around the world work with different licensing models either required or permitted by their local copyright law. According to IFRRO’s Quick Guide there are three basic types of RRO licensing models Voluntary collective licensing Voluntary collective licensing with legislative support Legal licences Some RROs offer a combination of features from the three licensing models. RRO licences can also differ in the number and types of works they include, the types of uses they allow, and their geographic scope. Learn more Copyright policy by country Copyright law, however, can vary from country to country, which can make copyright difficult to navigate. our resources helps to navigate copyright basics by country. Copyright certificate courses Our certificate courses provide guidance and tools to understand copyright challenges. Whether you are responsible for managing compliance and ethics, obtaining permissions, organizing your organization’s various license agreements, or managing content, our programs will help to navigate the complex world of copyright.